How to file a criminal complaint case

हिंदी में पढ़ें
November 06, 2018
By Advocate Chikirsha Mohanty

The society is vulnerable to crime. Law protects the society and deters criminal approach. There is an established procedure of law to file a criminal case under the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973:

  1. Filing of a complaint by the informant / complainant at the police station.

  2. If the complaint relates to a non-cognizable offence i.e. where the police cannot arrest a person without a warrant, the police will not register the FIR (first information report) and will ask the informant to approach the court having jurisdiction over the area where the offence took place.

  3. However, if the complaint relates to the commission of a cognizable offence i.e. where the police can arrest a person without a warrant, the police will register FIR under Section 154 of the Criminal Procedure Code (Cr.P.C.).

  4. Registration of FIR is followed by detailed investigation conducted by the police. This may include recording of statements of witnesses; search and seizure of documents and other property (if any, involved); collection of other evidence, if any (such as scientific evidence, medical evidence); examination and/or arrest of accused persons, and other processes of investigation.

  5. After the investigation has been completed, police will file either the charge sheet or a closure report before the competent court, depending upon availability of evidence. This is done under Section 173 of Cr.P.C.

  6. In case of a closure report having been filed, the informant / complainant may be given a chance by the court to oppose the closure of the case.

  7. In case of a charge sheet having been filed, cognizance of the offences committed is taken by the court (under Section 190 of Cr.P.C.).

  8. If the offence is triable exclusively by the Sessions Court, then the case will be committed to the Sessions Court. Otherwise, the Magistrate court will continue to handle the case.

  9. Next stage is the framing of charges if there is prima facie evidence against the accused person(s). However, if no prima facie case is made out, the accused will be discharged.

  10. If charges are framed, the next stage will be the recording of evidence of prosecution witnesses. This also includes their cross-examination by or on behalf of the accused persons.

  11. Next stage is the recording of statements of accused persons under Section 313 of Cr.P.C.

  12. Thereafter, recording of evidence of defence witnesses, if any, is done by or on behalf of the accused.

  13. In the next stage, final arguments take place (may be oral as well as written).

  14. Judgment delivered by the court. It may result in conviction or acquittal of accused persons, depending upon whether or not the charges are proved by evidence adduced by prosecution.

  15. In case of conviction of accused persons, sentence is awarded to the accused persons after hearing them on the question of sentence.

The information provided here is for knowledge purposes only. Always consult an expert criminal lawyer before initiating a criminal case.

Consult some of the top criminal lawyers in India at LawRato.


These guides are not legal advice, nor a substitute for a lawyer
These articles are provided freely as general guides. While we do our best to make sure these guides are helpful, we do not give any guarantee that they are accurate or appropriate to your situation, or take any responsibility for any loss their use might cause you. Do not rely on information provided here without seeking experienced legal advice first. If in doubt, please always consult a lawyer.

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User Reviews

4.7 - 16 reviews

November 06, 2018 How to file a criminal complaint case

very good article. Can you tell me more about the law?

Kirti on Apr 03, 2019

nicely written. Great work

Neha on Mar 07, 2019

solved my queries.

Arti on Apr 02, 2019

thank you for the information

Smita on Mar 14, 2019

nice one. Please share more info

Amar on Mar 14, 2019

needed a lawyer….what is the procedure?

Sharad on Apr 12, 2019

great content. Thanks.

Akanksha on Apr 07, 2019

nice work with the article.

Komal on Apr 12, 2019

good article. Can you give some more detail on the issue.

Shraddha on Apr 08, 2019

Answered all my legal queries.

Bharat on Apr 04, 2019

whom to contact for any legal query?

Parveen on Mar 26, 2019

Helped a lot in understanding the law.

Anonymous on Mar 04, 2019

I want to know more about this law. Good work

Syed on Mar 27, 2019

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Jayesh on Mar 08, 2019

Gave me a very clear idea of the subject.

Amar on Apr 07, 2019

thanks for the information

Raju on Mar 04, 2019