restrictions by joint owner for constructing home on my part of land

I have one plot with joint owner. my uncle has used his share to construct home on his part but he is creating hurdle when i started construction on my share. He is putting unnecessary restriction , its like dictating how should i be building my home. He is threatening that if i dont hear he will file case against me thereby stopping me on construction. My concern is that how come he stop me from building home if land belongs to me.

Answers (3)

156 votes

If the land belongs to you and if you had/have been given share on the property, cetainily, you are having the papers . If yes, you start making construction and if your uncle creats any trouble you can make a petition to the concened police station or to the Sub Divisional Officer or Magistrate to initiate a proceeding under section 107 of code of criminal procedure or you could file a partition suit in the court for division of share.

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196 votes

Construction of house over your owned property is your right under the Laws of India. However, any construction is subject to the different municipal / building laws applicable in your area. If your ongoing construction is in conformity with Law no individual can stop you from constructing your house. in case any one does so, proper action under the law can be taken against him.

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The term property in common parlance indicates the economic status of a person. Any property is held by an individual to draw out benefit from it. Transfers are made by owners themselves, ostensible owners and the co-owners or we can say joint owners. When two or more persons enjoy common ownership of a property, for example say in a coparcenary, the male members and now even daughters have a common and an equal interest in the ancestral property, any co-owner can transfer his own share in the property to a stranger or another co-owner. And that transferee steps in the shoes of the co-owner (transferor) and gets clothed with all his assets and liabilities. We can say that the transferee becomes the co-owner.

Section 44 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, deals with transfers by one co-owner. It also deals with the rights of a transferee in this type of a transaction.
In my project I have dealt with the following topics-
# Who is a co-owner
# What are the rights and liabilities of a transferee under this section
# Can a co-owner make a transfer without the consent of other co-owners
# What is a dwelling house and undivided family for the purpose of this section.
I have also dealt with various case laws. For the purpose of better understanding I have divided the project in parts.

EXPLANATION OF SECTION 44 TPA, 1882 ( With reference to Section 4 of the Partition Act, 1893)
Section 44 says -
Transfer By One Co-Owner- Where one of two or more co-owners of immovable property legally competent in that behalf transfers his share of such property or any interest therein, the transferee acquires, as to such share or interest, so far as is necessary to give effect to the transfer, the transferors right to joint possession or other common or part enjoyment of the property, and to enforce a partition of the same, but subject to the conditions and liabilities affecting, at the date of the transfer, the share or interest so transferred.

Where the transferee of a share of a dwelling house belonging to an undivided family is not a member of the family, nothing in this section shall be deemed to entitle him to joint possession or other common or part enjoyment of the house.

This section of Transfer of Property Act deals with rights and liabilities of a transferee from a co-owner, as to the enjoyment of the property transferred ( should be immovable for this section). The first part of the section merely incorporates the principle that a person who takes transfer from another, steps into the shoes of his transferor, and is clothed with all the rights and becomes subject to all the liabilities of his transferor. In short, we can say that he becomes as much a co-owner as his transferor was before the transfer. The second part of the provision provides an exception to the general rule stated in the first part and is based on convenience. It is designed to prevent an outsider from forcing his way into a dwelling house in which other members of the transferors family have a right to live.

But the remedy is to claim partition. When we read the section there are some terms which we need to understand like-
Who is a co-owner ?
Legal Competency of a Co-owner to Transfer ?
Rights and liabilities of a transferee from a Co-owner ?
What is a dwelling house and Undivided family ?
Who Is A Co-Owner ?

Ownership consists of innumerable number of claims, liberties, powers with regard to the thing owned. Ownership is of different kinds. There are absolute and limited, sole ownership, co-ownership, vested ownership, contingent ownership, corporeal, incorporeal. When a person owns a property in one time it is called sole ownership, but if the property is owned by more than one person then it is called joint ownership. By means of partition one can have co-ownership changed into sole ownership.

The expression co-owner is wide enough to include all kinds of ownership such as joint tenancy, Tenancy in common, Coparcenary, membership of undivided Hindu family, etc. The very fact of the reference to the property that the parties have certain shares, indicates that they are co-owners.
In Indian Law a co-owner is entitled to three essentials of ownership-
# Right to possession
# Right to enjoy
# Right to dispose

Therefore, if a co-owner is deprived of his property, he has a right to be put back in possession. Such a co-owner has an interest in every portion of the property and has a right irrespective of his quantity of share, to be in possession jointly with others. This is also called joint-ownership.

The following are the types of co-ownerships:
Tenants in Common
When the type of co-ownership is not specifically stated, by default a tenancy in common is likely to exist. Each tenant in common has a separate fractional interest in the entire property. Although each tenant in common has a separate interest in the property, each may possess and use the whole property. Tenants in common may hold unequal interest in the property but the interests held by each tenant in common is a fractional interest in the entire property For e.g. B owns a 25% interest in the property and A owns a 75% interest. Each tenant in common may freely transfer his/her interest in the property.

Tenants in common do not have the right of survivorship. Therefore, upon the death of one tenant in common, his/her interest passes via will or through the laws of intestacy to another persons who will then become a tenant in common with the surviving co-owners.

Joint Tenancy
The most attractive feature of joint tenancy is the right of survivorship. Upon the death of one joint tenant, his/her interest immediately passes to the surviving joint tenants and not to the decedents estate. Joint tenants hold a single unified interest in the entire property. Each joint tenant must have equal shares in the property For e.g. B and A each hold a 50% interest. Each joint tenant may occupy the entire property subject only to the rights of the other joint tenants.

Unlike tenants in common, joint tenancy has several requirements that must be met in order to be properly created. Massachusetts law requires that in order for a joint tenancy to be created specific language must be included in the conveyance or devise. Such language includes that the grantees take the land: "jointly"; "as joint tenants"; "in joint tenancy"; "to them and the survivor of them"; or using other language in the instrument that it was clearly intended to create an estate in joint tenancy. However, even if such language is contained in the conveying instrument, a joint tenancy may not exist. There are four additional common law requirements necessary in order to create a joint tenancy.

The four unities are
(1) Unity of time. The interests of the joint tenants must vest at the same time
(2) Unity of possession. The joint tenants must have undivided interests in the whole property, not divided interests in separate parts
(3) Unity of title. The Joint tenants must derive their interest by the same instrument (e.g. a deed or will)
(4) Unity of interest. Each joint tenant must have estates of the same type and same duration. All four unities must exist. If one unity is missing at any time during the joint tenancy, the type of co-ownership automatically changes to a tenancy in common. A joint tenancy may be created by a will or deed but may never be created by intestacy because there has to be an instrument expressing joint tenancy. A joint tenancy is freely transferable.

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