SECTION 39 IPC - Indian Penal Code - "Voluntarily"

Last Updated: 01 Apr, 2024
By Advocate Chikirsha Mohanty

A person is said to cause an effect ?voluntarily? when he causes it by means whereby he intended to cause it, or by means which, at the time of employing those means, he knew or had reason to believe to be likely to cause it.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is section 39?

Section 39 of Criminal Justice Act 1988 Common assault is considered the lowest level of assault because no physical contact is required to prove guilt. It is enough to prove that the defendant made the victim fear immediate violence.